Day 2 :
Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Israel
Keynote: Modeling of air pollutants dispersion from industrial sources in environmental impact assessment
Time : 09:30-10:20
Boris Krasovitov currently working at the Mechanical engineering department of Ben-Gurion University of the Negev in Israel has more than twenty years of experience in physics of aerosols, air quality and air pollution control. His research focuses on air pollution modeling and scavenging of polluted aerosols and gases from the Atmosphere.
Although it is commonly accepted that air pollution is dominated by local emissions many studies report that plumes of harmful pollutants can be transported by wind across oceans and continents and warn about the growing danger of air quality degradation. Air pollutants released from industrial sources in a city may have a significant impact on human health, depending on the properties and atmospheric lifetime of the pollutants. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) evaluation showed an increasing risk for a wide range of diseases, e.g. lung cancer, respiratory and heart diseases, with increasing levels of exposure to particulate matter and air pollution (IARC, 2013). Adsorption of trace atmospheric gases such as NO2, SO2, and CO2 by carbon based aerosol particles emitted from industrial sources contributes to the evolution of concentration distribution of the trace constituents and can affect the subsequent chemical reactions in the atmosphere. In this connection, it is essential to evaluate the air quality levels of the atmosphere in order to assess the possible health impact of air pollutants. Clearly, modeling of air pollutants dispersion and deposition, in combination with air quality monitoring, are essential and complementary tools for long and short term air pollution control strategies.
In the framework of our study, we developed new approaches for urban and regional air pollution modeling, wet and dry deposition of particulate matter and adsorption of trace atmospheric gases by carbon based aerosol particles emitted from industrial sources. The developed models are used to predict the impacts of emission controls on the atmospheric concentrations and deposition of gaseous pollutants, fine and coarse particulate matter (PM2.5–10) and other air pollutants. The assessments of human exposure to various contaminants are based on contaminant concentration and on the parameters related with the exposure event, e.g. characteristics of the atmospheric boundary layer, precipitation rate etc. The obtained results can be useful in the analysis of different meteorology–chemistry models including scavenging of aerosols in air pollution plumes by rain and for the assessment of human exposure to various contaminants including particulate matter and hazardous gases emitted from industrial sources.
South African weather service, South Africa
Keynote: Climatic variables and the recent spike in malaria morbidity and mortality in mutale municipality, south Africa: An 18-year data analysis
Time : 10:20-11:10
Abiodun Adeola works as a lead scientist: climate change and variability in the research unit of South African Weather Service. His particular research interest is climate, climate change and variability impacts on heath. He is proficient in the application of remote sensing and geographic information system in providing solutions to environmental health problems through climate change analysis and modelling. He has a strong passion in improving the health and wellbeing. As part of his PhD research, he has developed a SARIMA model using remotely derived environmental variables to predict malaria cases in South Africa. Article of the model is under review with Eco Health journal. He is currently a leading member of a research collaboration group on “Developing an integrated modeling and surveillance system based on climate, land use, and malaria transmission dynamics in the eastern Limpopo river valley, South Africa.
Statement of the Problem: The malaria control program community of South Africa, received a seemly blow as an awakening call on the reality of the country’s target of year 2018 to eliminate malaria. The north-eastern part of the country comprising of Limpopo, Mpumalanga and KwaZulu-Natal have recorded a sudden rise in the number of malaria morbidity and mortality in the current malaria season. This paper aims at retrospectively and prospectively exploring the impact of climate variability among other factors driving the persistent transmission of malaria in Mutale, Limpopo Province of South Africa.
Methodology & Theoretical Orientation: A time series and multivariate analysis was performed on monthly total rainfall, monthly mean maximum and minimum temperature and monthly case data of malaria in Mutale municipality for the period of 2000 to 2017. The Rossby centre regional atmospheric model, (RCA4 RCM) was used to perform climate analysis and projections for rainfall and near-surface (2m) temperature. Findings: The time series analysis indicated that an average of 629.5mm of rainfall was received over the period of study. The rainfall has an annual variation of about 0.46%. Both maximum and minimum temperature showed a positive increasing trend in their mean. Spearman’s correlation analysis indicated that all climatic variables are positively correlated with malaria morbidity. Further analysis revealed that total monthly rainfall and monthly minimum temperature, with one month lagged effect were the most significant climatic variable influencing malaria transmission. More particularly, malaria morbidity showed a strong relationship with episode of rainfall above 800 mm and above 5-year running mean of rainfall. Furthermore, the RCA4 model indicated that, annual rainfall in the province will be 0% - 15% drier (below average) and seasonally, the western part of the province will be 5% wetter in December – February (DJF) and 5% dryer in the eastern part in March – May (MAM), June – August (JJA) and <20% dryer in September – November (SON). Near-surface temperature is projected to increase between +1.5°C - +2.5°C in 29-year period.
Conclusion & Significance: Adequate understanding of climatic variables dynamics retrospectively and prospectively is imperative in seeking answers to malaria morbidity among other factors, particularly in the wake of the sudden spike of the disease in the province.
- Water Born Diseases|, Zoonotic Diseases, Mental Health, Infectious Diseases, Vector Born Diseases, Environmental Health, Climate Change
Location: Buttes & Oscars
South African weather service, South Africa
University of Calcutta, India
Title: Chronic arsenic exposure and adverse health outcome: understanding the molecular perspectives
Time : 11:30-12:10
Pritha Bhattacharjee is an Assistant Professor presently working in University of Calcutta, India. Her research interest includes Environmental Toxicogenomics; Molecular Biology and Human Genetics. She published many research articles in reputed scientific journals.
Chronic arsenic toxicity and its and its adverse health outcome including cancer (multiple target organs) is a well established fact; however the underlying molecular mechanism of this non-mutagenic carcinogen is not well understood so far. Population chronically exposed to arsenic, either through groundwater, food stuff or occupational sources, results in a plethora of dermatological and non-dermatological health effects including multi-organ cancer and early mortality. Epidemiological studies identified males are more affected; however risk of women and child were overlooked to some extent. Skin lesions are hallmarks of arsenic toxicity and pre-malignant lesions like palmar and planter keratosis later develop into skin cancer. To understand the adverse effect of this toxic metabolite on biological system (cellular targets), and to unravel the underlying molecular basis (at the level of transcript, proteome, or metabolite), a holistic, systems biology approach was taken; where we assessed the arsenic exposure in the patients sample (blood, urine, nail, hair), identified biomarkers (cellular, genetic as well as epigenetic) and correlated with altered functioning of system (cardiovascular, respiratory, peripheral neuropathy, etc). It has been noticed, two individuals of same family member, might have different disease outcome despite of exposure at similar extent, indicating variation in individual genomic landscape and consequent interaction with environment. We have identified alterations in gene expression profile and epigenetic dysregulations (including altered DNA methylation, histone code error and miRNA dysregulation) specifically for "arsenic signature" and "lesion signature" patterns. These patterns can be used as potential prognostic biomarkers of arsenic toxicity. Moreover, we are investigating the anti-carcinogenic and epigenetic potential of black tea on arsenic-induced cancer cell line, which could be promising as epigenetic therapeutics in the field of arsenicosis.
Title: Occupational health of workers in waste hair reprocessing: studies from west bengal, India Sandip Bhattacharjee
Time : 12:10-12:50
Sandip Bhattacharjee is a researcher in Occupation and Environmental Health, Siemens India.He has published many articles in reputed scientific journals.
Waste hair reprocessing is becoming popular as a trade in recent years. Increasing demand is noticed from cosmetics to agriculture sectors. However, the workers associated with this occupation remain unnoticed from their health issue perspectives. We have performed an eepidemiological study on 500 individuals (250 cases and 250 controls; age ranges from 18-60 yrs old), occupationally associated with waste hair processing from Midnapore district, West Bengal. The study indicates prevalence of pneumonitis, alveolitis, reduced lung function and tuberculosis in the population due to prolonged exposure to hair dust. Using hair dye like paraphenylenediamine (a potential carcinogen) in bare hands, might induce accelerated apoptosis and oxidative damage, subsequently increasing the risk malignant tumors including multiple myeloma and hematopoietic cancers in the work population. Risk of genetic damage has been studied from biological samples like blood, sputum, urine and hair samples. We are also investigating the role of genetic variations in target genes and individual susceptibility having similar occupational background. To the best of our knowledge, this would be the first study identifying the adverse health effects in the population, occupationally involved in waste hair re-processing, with detailed understanding at molecular level.
The Ekaterinburg Medical Research Center, Russia
Title: Some discrepancies between a standard practice of cumulated health risks assessment and the based-on-experiment theory of metal nanoparticles combined toxicity.
Time : 13:50-14:30
Minigalieva graduated from The Urals State Pedagogical University (Department of Biology) in 2003. Since then she has been working as a researcher in the Ekaterinburg Medical Research Center for Prophylaxis and Health Protection in Industrial Workers. Her present position is Head of the department at Industrial Toxicology Lab. She authored or co-authored about 70 scientific papers, included 25 in peer-reviewed international journals, and presented her work to many scientific meetings, both national and international.
Assessment of cumulative health risks associated with the combined effects of two or more metal oxide nanoparticles on the organism of workers widely observed in several industries (e..g. metallurgy, arc-welding, laser processing of metals) should be theoretically and experimentally based on the toxicology of mixtures. Meanwhile there is no full match between the said assessment and this scientific basis, some of the contradictions between them being fundamental. This state of things is caused not only by simplifications characteristic of the generally recognized risk assessment methodology but also by the extreme complexity and some intrinsic inconsistency of the theory of combined toxicity, the most essential issues of which are considered by us on the basis of literary and, mostly, our own data. In particular, we studied by acute intratracheal and subchronic intraperitoneal experiments on rats and by the mathematical modeling of general patterns and some specific peculiarities of (NiO + Mn3O4), (CuO+ ZnO), (CuO+ PbO), (ZnO+PbO), (CuO+ ZnO + PbO), (TiO2 + Al2O3), (TiO2 +SiO2), (Al2O3 + SiO2), and (TiO2 + Al2O3 + SiO2) nanoparticle combined action. Feasible approaches to solving practically important problems associated with the above-mentioned discrepancies are proposed.
Time : 14:30-15:10
Emad Shaker has done his PhD work in UCD, and He has done his post doctoral research in Food Science Technology at Cork, Ierland. He Identified chemical structure of compounds and his aim is to measure the antioxidant potential effect in oxidative stress. He did his research in analyzing the biological role of extracted natural antioxidants in vivo. He is presently working as a Professor of Biochemistry at Minia University, Egypt.
Cadminum is an environmental contaminant in air, soil, water and can induce damage to various tissues in very low concentration. Biological experiment has been occurred to focus on Cd oxidative stress. In drinking water rat received daily 100 mg/kg body weight cadmium (CdCl2.2½H2O). Female rats fed standard chow diet mixed with 100 mg/kg body weight N-acetyl cysteine NAC as standard protective agent. Rats in other tested groups fed chow diet mixed with 200 mg/kg body weight dried husk tomato, nabk and sycamore in separated groups as natural edible powder plants. The toxicity of cadmium in biomedical and histopathological analysis was investigated without and with protective powder plants compare to NAC. Four weeks experiment showed the toxic contaminated cadmium in serum alkaline phosphatase, creatinine, malondialdehye and catalase activity beside the histological patterns for liver, kidney, ovary and brain sections. Results showed that husk tomato poses high protective effect closed to that for NAC in most values. Moreover, the proven potential for NAC and husk was clearly found in body weight, food efficiency ratio, and liver and kidney disorders. The health values of lipid peroxidation and catalase activity as oxidative stress markers were observed in NAC and husk as well. Liver tissue, the most related organ to Cd toxicity was improved in histology patterns through NAC and husk administration.